|1765 in science|
- May – James Watt makes a breakthrough in the development of the steam engine by constructing a model with a separate condenser.
- October 15 – Gribeauval system for manufacture of cannon introduced in France by royal decree.
- Timișoara Fortress construction completed by the Habsburg Empire.
- Saverio Manetti begins publication of his Storia naturale degli uccelli, trattata con metodo e adornata di figure intagliate in rame e miniate al naturale. Ornithologia methodice digesta atque iconibus aeneis ad vivum illuminatis ornate ("Natural History of the Birds, treated systematically and adorned with copperplate engraving illustrations, in miniature and life-size") in Florence.
- March 7 – Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor (died 1833)
- November 14 – Robert Fulton, American engineer (died 1815)
- December 8 – Eli Whitney, American inventor (died 1825)
- April 15 – Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist (born 1711)
- May 7 – Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician (born 1713)
- September – Richard Pococke, English anthropologist and explorer (born 1704)
- December 25 – Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech theologian, natural scientist and pioneer in the field of electricity (born 1698)
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1765". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 323. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Chartrand, René (2003). Napoleon's Guns 1792-1815. Vol. 1. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 1-84176-458-2.
- "Copley Medal | British scientific award". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 July 2020.